Excursions

Multi-day pre-conference field trips

Cape Verde (Volcanism, Natural Hazards)

Organizers: Vera Alfama, Sónia Victória, José Maria Semedo, Sílvia Monteiro, Romualdo Correia
Duration: 5 days
Participants: 40

Itinerary: Santiago Island – Praia plateaus; Monte das Vacas; Ribeira de São Domingos; Ribeira Seca (Barragem do Poilão) – Órgãos; Pico de Antónia; Santa Catarina plateau; Serra Malagueta; Tarrafal - Monte Graciosa

Summary: The geology of Santiago Island consists mainly of volcanic materials, dominantly outcropping basalts, basanites, tephrites, pyroclastic products and veins, basaltic dykes and limburgites. Phonolites, trachytes, gabbros, syenites, pyroxenites and sedimentary rocks occur in smaller extensions. The growth of the island is thought to have been first through a main emitting centre, later moving to a fissure regime. The main volcanic activity is thought to have originated from the main crater of a volcano that would occupy the Pico de Antonia. Throughout the island there are recent and well-preserved craters. The oldest formations are observed in heavily denuded areas, usually in the bed of more deeply excavated streams.

Azores Islands (Volcanism, Geoheritage)

Organizers: Rui Tiago F. Marques, Paulo A.P. Amaral
Duration: 3 days
Participants: 40

Itinerary: S. Miguel Island

Summary: to be defined.

Gerês and Peneda Mountains (Geomorphological Landscapes, Geoheritage)

Organizers: António Vieira, António Bento Gonçalves
Duration: 3 days
Participants: 25

Itinerary: 1st day – Gerês mountain: Pedra Bela, Arado waterfall, Fecha das Barjas waterfall, Calcedónia; 2nd day – Trail of Minas dos Carris; 3rd day – Peneda mountain: Sra. da Peneda, High Vez valley

Summary: The mountains of Gerês and Peneda are two of the highest mountains of the north-west of Portugal. Their territory is part of the National Park of Peneda-Gerês. The main geomorphological characteristics are due to the geological constitution, dominated by granitic rocks, significant tectonic action, and some evidence of glaciation. During this field trip we will be able to visit some places to observe excellent examples of granitic landscapes and glacial features worthy of being considered authentic geomorphosites. Cultural heritage is also an important characteristic of these landscapes, which will be considered in this field trip.

One-day mid-conference field trips (Wednesday, 14 September)

Serra da Estrela (Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology, Geoheritage)

Organizers: Gonçalo Vieira, Emanuel de Castro, Hugo Gomes
Participants: 45

Itinerary: Coimbra; Senhora do Espinheiro – Sabugueiro/Covão do Urso Panorama – Lagoa Comprida – Salgadeiras – Alto da Torre (visit to CITEG), Covão do Boi, Piornos, Covão da Ametade and Penhas Douradas; Coimbra

Summary:The Serra da Estrela is part of the Iberian Central System and is the highest mountain range in mainland Portugal, rising to 1993 m asl at the Alto da Torre. It is a block mountain uplifted during the Alpine compression that has cut the planation surfaces of central Portugal, displacing them vertically. The mountain is built in granites, shales, schists, and greywackes and shows a remarkable geological history bringing together long-term landscape evolution, Pleistocene glacial heritage, and present-day geomorphic processes. The geomorphological landscape, high biodiversity values and the long and rich history of human occupation are the core of the Estrela UNESCO Global Geopark. The 1-day field trip will consist of a visit to the main glacial geosites of the Estrela Geopark and will provide a good overview of the plateaus and higher part of the mountain. The highlights will be the glacial erosion landscapes of the western plateau, glacial valleys, moraines, tors, and periglacial slope deposits. The field trip will be by bus with short and easy walks.

Arouca Geopark (Geoheritage, Geopark). Geomorphosites of the Arouca UNESCO Global Geopark – Geomorphology fosters local sustainable development

Organizers: Artur Sá, António Rochette, António Vieira, Daniela Rocha
Participants: 40

Itinerary: Coimbra – Oliveira de Azeméis – Vale de Cambra – Frecha da Mizarela waterfall – meteorological tower viewpoint – “Rocks delivering stones” house – “Cornbread” rocks of Junqueiro – S. Pedro Velho bornhardt – Detrelo da Malhada viewpoint – Viveiros da Granja boulders – periglacial structures of Granja – Arouca – Paiva River valley – Paiva boardwalk and Arouca 516 suspension bridge – Arouca – Coimbra

Summary: The Arouca UNESCO Global Geopark, internationally recognized since 2009, is a territory marked by mountainous reliefs sculpted by a well-fitted drainage network. Among the 41 inventoried, protected and promoted geosites, there are several geomorphosites that include viewpoints, fluvial landforms, granitic landforms, residual landforms, and asymmetric slopes. During the proposed field trip, some of the most emblematic geomorphosites of this territory will be visited, explaining their geotouristic use in the service of a sustainable territorial development strategy. The visit will end at the Paiva boardwalk, named seven times by the World Travel Awards as the best sustainable tourism infrastructure, and at the Arouca 516, the longest suspension bridge in the world, from where it is possible to observe some of the territory's geomorphosites.

Littoral and Bairrada (Coastal Dynamics, Coastal Erosion and Hazards)

Organizers: António Campar de Almeida, Pedro Dinis
Participants: 50

Itinerary: Coimbra – Dolina dos Cedros, Serra Boa Viagem – Miradouro da Bandeira – Casa dos Cogumelos – Dunes of Quiaios – Braças/Vela lakes – Vagueira – Barra de Aveiro – Pateira de Fermentelos – Anadia Clay Pits – Buçaco – Chã da Mata – Coimbra

Summary: Dolina dos Cedros, Serra Boa Viagem: one of a 150 dolines developed during Quaternary uplift of S. Boa Viagem and associated with more calcareous layers or faults. Miradouro da Bandeira: view of two important scarps and the dune fields. Casa dos Cogumelos: an interglacial platform formed with coastal sediments which are overlain with Wurmian slope deposits. Dunes of Quiaios: three dune generations – the earliest, very reduced, is Pleistocene to early Holocene old and has Podzol soils, the second, with parabolic dunes and occupying a triangle north of Quiaios, is uncertain in age, and the latest is associated with the LIA period and has long linear dunes. Braças/Vela lakes: interdunal lakes developed with inland sand drifting. Vagueira: the foredune has almost totally disappeared, and a dyke protects the houses from sea storms. Barra de Aveiro: artificially opened in 1808 after the total spit closing, but with difficult maintenance. Building of the jetties in 1958 and retreating of the southern shoreline. Pateira de Fermentelos: a small lake in a subsiding area at the downstream sector of the structurally controlled Cértima River valley. Anadia Clay Pits: diverse mud-dominated alluvial–lacustrine units deposited in Pliocene–Pleistocene analogues of the Pateira de Fermentelos. Buçaco: a ridge associated with the north-eastern flank of a syncline with Ordovician quartzites (Buçaco syncline). Weathering-related silicifications are observed in the Cretaceous cover. Chã da Mata: fault-bounded fragment of the south-eastern flank of the Buçaco syncline; western side, influenced by the Porto-Tomar Fault zone, with Pliocene deposits formed at the inner edge of the Iberian Atlantic Margin.

Limestone Massifs of Central Portugal (Karst and Palaeokarst)

Organizers: Maria Luísa Rodrigues, Virgínia Teles
Participants: 50

Itinerary: Coimbra - northern part of the Candeeiros anticline mountain (Ecopista) – contact between the St. António plateau and the Alvados depression (Fórnia) – edge of the Alvados depression (Grutas) – contact between the St. António plateau and Minde’s polje (Miradouro) – Alviela karst springs (Carsoscópio) – Coimbra

Summary: The Estremadura Limestone Massif (ELM) has the most extensive karst complex in Portugal. Karst features are related to the limestone outcrops that formed it but are also due to the tectonic forces that uplift the massif. This uplift contributed to its individualization from the lower surrounding terrains (the occidental part of the western Meso-Cenozoic basin and the Cenozoic active basin of the Tagus River), and it is responsible for the design of its geomorphological units. Moreover, it is also the basis for understanding the patterns and spatial organization of the karst landforms. This field trip was organized not only to illustrate karst geomorphology features, but also several matters linked to structural geomorphology, hydrology, Quaternary evolution and geoheritage sites useful in geotourism planning.

Schist Mountains of Central Portugal (Structural Geomorphology, Slope Instability, Natural Hazards)

Organizers: Luciano Lourenço, Bruno Martins
Participants: 50

Itinerary: Coimbra – Lousã – Senhora da Candosa – Góis – Arganil – Folques – Coja – Piódão – Barreosa – Vide – Alvoco – Vendas de Galizes – Aguieira – Penacova – Coimbra

Summary: The trip will take place in the Mondego River hydrographic basin and, mainly, in its two main tributaries on the left bank, the rivers Alva and Ceira. Starting with the Mondego River and going up through the Ceira River, in Portela, the Old Iberian Massif is located over Meso-Cenozoic units. The river flows into the well-known tectonic basin Lousã-Góis-Arganil (Suzanne Daveau, 1986), where archaic deposits, contemporary to the Eocene flattening, and fanglomerate deposits can be observed. We see the inclined platform where the Mondego River flows and, as the altitude is rising, we will be able to see the Caramulo mountain. After observing some headwaters of the Pomares stream’s geomorphological features, we will descend to the historic village of Piódão, with its picturesque houses built in schist and covered with slate slabs. Back in Coimbra we will cross the quartzite ridge that extends from Buçaco to Penedos de Góis. In that place, the quartzite formation is called Livraria do Mondego. The journey will finish at the Penacova viewpoint, where we will observe the quartzites and several river adaptations before continuing our way to Portela, at the entrance of Coimbra, in its confluence with the Ceira River, where our morning journey began.

Coimbra City (Cultural Geomorphology) - Multiple tours/multiple topics

Organizers: Department of Geography and Tourism – FLUC
Participants: 40

Itinerary: Coimbra (several)

Summary: Coimbra represents the transition between very different geographical, geological, and geomorphological territories. From the north to the south, from the east to the west of the Portuguese continental area, Coimbra is a land of transition, where the climate, relief, vegetation, land use, and human occupation acquire very singular characteristics and present a wide diversity. The privileged natural location favoured by the presence of the main Portuguese national river is one of the primary explanations for the historical evolution of the city. Thereby, Coimbra can be considered an example of a perfectly balanced combination of nature, history, and heritage, which give it a singular character and wealth. The sharp physical contrasts, the Mondego River dynamics, and the several detailed geomorphological features such as its history, culture, and heritage are singular reasons to make short field trips in Coimbra. Therefore, the proposal is to carry out the following visits. – Viewpoints tour. The viewpoints are the perfect location to observe the physical contrast of Coimbra's territory from diverse perspectives and understand the reasons that underlie such great geomorphological and geographical diversity. It is possible to observe from there the opposition between the elevated, sloping, and forested eastern areas formed by Palaeozoic metasedimentary rocks and the low, smooth plane, and farming western areas settled by Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary units. – Mondego River hydrodynamics. During a pleasant walking tour of the downtown streets and the opposite riverside neighbourhood, it is possible to recognize the traces of the flood episodes which have characterized the hydrological history of the Mondego River for centuries. Relevant historical and heritage issues related to the hydrogeomorphology of the Mondego River will also deserve our attention. - Mondego valley geomorphological evolution. The Quaternary evolution of the Mondego River valley can be seen in terraces and deposits on both sides of the present river valley. The river tracing evolution in the city of Coimbra with its cut-off structure will be presented and discussed in terms of regional geomorphological significance. – Coimbra’s UNESCO World Heritage. At the top of a hill, in the upper part of the city, the university's main historic buildings represent the knowledge, the culture, and the authentic atmosphere of the city. The topographic position and the geographic location have given to this place a central historical significance as the first capital of the kingdom. Nonetheless, at present, natural geostrategic characteristics and historical relevance are fused in the magnificent heritage treasures to which a visit is mandatory.

Multi-day post-conference field trips

Minho (Portugal) and Galicia (Spain) Regions (Coastal Dynamics, Coastal Hazards, Coastal Zone Management)

Organizers: Alberto Gomes, Augusto Pérez Alberti
Duration: 3 days
Participants: 50

Itinerary: Coimbra – Vila Nova de Gaia (Praia de Lavadores) – Sampaio – Esposende – Valença (overnight); Ribeira – Corrubedo – Laxe Brava – Vigo (overnight); Oia – Bayona – Vila Nova de Cerveira – Coimbra

Summary: During this field trip, we will be in Portugal seeing and discussing issues related to costal dynamics, marine terrace staircases, differential uplift of coastal blocks, coastal geoheritage, coastal geoarchaeology, coastal erosion and coastal land planning.

Serra da Estrela (Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology, Geoheritage)

Organizers: Gonçalo Vieira, Emanuel de Castro, Fábio Loureiro
Duration: 3 days
Participants: 35

1st day – Coimbra – Folgosinho – Penedo do Sino – Videmonte (Meandros do Mondego) – Quinta da Taberna – Mocho Real – Manteigas (overnight in Manteigas); 2nd day – Manteigas – Hike from Penhas Douradas to Lagoa Comprida – Salgadeiras – Sabugueiro – Manteigas (overnight in Manteigas); 3rd day – Manteigas – Zêzere valley – Lagoa Seca – Piornos – Alto da Pedrice – Poio do Judeu – Alto da Torre (visit to the Interpretation Centre of the Estrela Geopark) – Coimbra

Summary: The Serra da Estrela is part of the Iberian Central System and is the highest mountain range in mainland Portugal, rising to 1993 m asl at the Alto da Torre. It is a block mountain uplifted during the Alpine compression that has cut the planation surfaces of central Portugal, displacing them vertically. The mountain is built in granites, shales, schists, and greywackes and shows a remarkable geological history bringing together long-term landscape evolution, Pleistocene glacial heritage, and present-day geomorphic processes. The geomorphological landscape, high biodiversity values and the long and rich history of human occupation are the core of the Estrela UNESCO Global Geopark. The 3-day field trip will allow for a very good overview of the main highlights of the 2100 km2 Estrela Geopark. It will include visits to the main geosites, encompassing glacial, periglacial, granite weathering, fluvial, hydrogeological, petrological, and tectonic themes, as well as a discussion of several issues related to the objectives and management of a UNESCO Global Geopark. We will highlight the scientific value of the geosites but will promote the links with cultural aspects of many of them. We will emphasize how a rich geological heritage can be the basis for promoting sustainable development in a territory of a low-density and ageing population suffering from complex socio-economic and environmental issues. The field trip will include 2 days based on bus travelling around the Geopark with short walks and 1 full day of hiking in the plateau (easy but long). For those not willing to do the hike, an alternate programme may be prepared.

Lisbon Region (Structural Geomorphology, Slope Instability, Coastal Dynamics, Natural Hazards)

Organizers: José Luís Zêzere, Ricardo Garcia, Sérgio Oliveira, Jorge Trindade, César Andrade
Duration: 3 days
Participants: 50

Itinerary: 1st day – Lisbon – Fanhões – Trancão Valley – Calhandriz – Arruda dos Vinhos – Quintas – Lisbon; 2nd day – Lisbon - Ribeira de Ilhas – Ericeira – Azenhas do Mar – Cabo da Roca – Boca do Inferno – Cascais – Lisbon; 3rd day – Lisbon – Almada (Cristo Rei) – Miradouro dos Capuchos – Costa da Caparica – Serra da Arrábida – Cabo Espichel – Lisbon

Summary: The Lisbon region presents some outstanding geomorphological landscapes that will be visited during this field trip. Cuestas were shaped by differential erosion during the Quaternary in the area located north of Lisbon, where the recent and present-day slope instabilities have been characterized by the occurrence of rainfall-triggered shallow slides and deep-seated slope movements. Near the Atlantic Ocean, the Sintra mountain stands out regionally, resulting from the intrusion of a complex of alkaline igneous rocks during the upper Cretaceous. This small mountain stands out on a coastal plateau laid over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Southwards of the Tagus valley, the Arrábida chain is a major structural example of the Alpine orogeny in Portugal, containing anticlines and overthrust faults that were explored by differential erosion. It presents one of the most spectacular coastal geomorphological settings in Portugal, with vertical sea cliffs of over 150 m plunging into the Atlantic Ocean. Beside the existing sea cliffs, the Lisbon region coastal zone is characterized by narrow sandy beaches that are subjected to erosion due to the low sediment supply and the sea level rise. Additionally, within a distance of just a few kilometres, coastal systems change from rocky coasts to beach–dune systems, a uniqueness that will be observed during this field trip.

Contact of person in charge for the excursions:

Prof. Doutor António Avelino Batista Vieira
Universidade do Minho
Instituto de Ciências Sociais
Departamento de Geografia
Campus de Azurém
4800-058 Guimarães
Portugal

http://www.geografia.uminho.pt
vieira@geografia.uminho.pt
Tel.: +351 253510560 & +351 253510576